BIOLOGY

Biology is the science of life and people who are engaged in it are called biologists. They study the secrets of living things. Their discoveries are of great value to all mankind.

Biology tells us about our body: how it is constructed and how it functions. It gives us important information about other living things and how their lives affect mankind. Knowledge of biology will help you to keep healthy.

It will be your guide in solving many of everyday living and scientific problems. Biologists have made a great contribution to science. They have increased our food supply, they have developed new and better varieties of plants and animals. Scientific methods of farming have given us much more food. Biologists control many diseases. They have saved millions of lives by discovering the causes of these diseases and methods of prevention and cure. Vaccines, penicillin and sulfa are products of the biological laboratory.

Biologists have solved many mysteries of the body. They have discovered how blood circulates, how food is digested and many other secrets of life. They are now working in different fields of biology and their studies may lead to a solution of many problems.

A biologist's laboratory is a fascinating place. In it you may find a variety of plants and animals, some of which are invisible to the naked eye. There are powerful microscopes and other instruments. One of the most important tools of a scientist is his laboratory is his notebook. He always keeps very complete and accurate records of his observations and experiments.

In carrying out his work biologists use the scientific method that is:

1. They find out everything that is known about the problem by reading or by discussing the matter with others.

2. They think of several possible explanations or solutions. Some of these will prove to be wrong. One or more of the others may be right.

3. They test all the possibilities by experiments. They repeat the experiment several times. They make every effort to prevent errors.

4. When they have reached a conclusion, they inform other scientists who may repeat the work.

Answer the questions:

1. Who do we call biologists?

2. What is their contribution to science?

3. What does a biologist’s laboratory look like?

4. What methods do biologists use in carrying out their work?

EXERCISES

I. Translate the following words bearing in mind the meaning of the affixes and memorize them:

1. to discover {v)), discoverer (n), discovery (n)

2. to value (v), value (n), valuable (adj)

3. to construct (v), construction (n), constructive (adj)

4. importance (n), important (adj)

5. to know (v), knowledge (n)

6. to develop (v), developer (n), development (n)

7. to vary (v), variety (n); variation (n), various (adj), variable (adj)

8. mystery (n), mysterious (adj)

9. to observe (v), observer (n), observation (n)

10. to specialize (v), specialist (n), speciality (n), special (adj).

II. Read the following words and guess their meaning:

Secret , to construct , function , information , problems, biology, method, control, million, vaccine, penicillin, sulfa product, laboratory, result, circulation, experiment, accurate, discuss, inform, faculty , botany, anatomy, microbiology, physiology, zoology, philosophy, genetics, museum, modern, mathematics, physics, specialization.

III. Supply the three forms of the following verbs:

To tell, to say, to speak, to give, to keep, to make, to lead, to begin, to be, to do, to choose, to know.

III. State the parts of speech and underline the suffixes:

Science, information, to function, engagement, to circulate, biological, preventive, digestion, constructor, possibility, to repeat, knowledge, various, specialize, to inform.

IV. Define the tense of the predicate and put the sentences into the interrogative and negative forms:

I. I am studying biology. 2. He has solved this difficult problem. 3. He is a good biologist. 4. My teacher developed a new plant. 5. These scientists work at a very interesting problem. 6. They began to investigate this problem last year. 7. Animals and plants live under different conditions. 8. Life exists in many places on the earth. 9. Some animals can exist under the immense pressure of the deep seas. 10. Biologists have solved many mysteries of the body. 11. Students of the biological faculty study different subjects.

V. Read and translate the text and reproduce it:

I am a student of the biological faculty. Our faculty is one of the largest faculties of the University. We study different subjects: Botany, Anatomy, Microbiology and many others. Besides these subjects we study Political Economy, Philosophy and English. We study English to be able to read scientific books on biology. There are many departments in our faculty: of botany, of zoology, of microbiology, of physiology of man and animals, of physiology, of plants, of genetics, of soil science, of conservation of nature, of bionics, etc. Besides there are research laboratories and museums. Every student has an opportunity to work in modern, well-equipped laboratories, where different problems of biology are under investigation. Students are acquainted with all branches of biology. They are lectured in various

subjects of natural science, namely botany, zoology, anatomy, microbiology, biophysics, biochemistry, soil science, bionics, genetics. Besides attending lectures they may join some scientific circle and choose a problem to work on according to their bents. All of them know that biology is the science of glorious past and great future. They do their best to acquire as much knowledge as possible. Graduates of the biological faculty are assigned to work at laboratories, schools, research institutes. Those who have a bent for research work may apply for a postgraduate course of study.

VI. Translate the text without a dictionary trying to guess the meaning of the unfamiliar words from the context:

Biology gives us an acquaintance with the world of living things and an understanding of some of the great fundamental laws and processes of nature. There are many special fields of knowledge and many pha5es and principles to which elementary training in general biology is essential. These include medicine, physiology, agriculture, horticulture, forestry, sanitation, hygiene and many others. Because man is an organism subject to the same laws which govern all living things and is built according to the same plan as other higher animals, an elementary knowledge of biology gives us a basis for an understanding of our own body.

Добавить комментарий

Ваш адрес email не будет опубликован. Обязательные поля помечены *